and Health promotion programs focus on keeping people healthy. Health promotion
programs aim to engage and empower individuals and communities to choose
and make changes that reduce the risk of developing lifestyle and/or chronic
diseases and other morbidities.
World Health Organization (WHO) defines health promotion as: “the process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health. This moves beyond focus on individual behavior towards a wide range of social and environmental interventions”
Disease prevention differs from health promotion because it focuses on specific efforts aimed at reducing the development and severity of chronic diseases and other morbidities. Disease prevention puts more emphasis on prevention strategies to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases and other co-morbidities related to musculoskeletal disorders. The emphasis is maintained on social determinants of health, which influence modifiable risk behaviors. Social determinants of health are the economic, social, cultural, and political conditions in which people are born, grow, and live that affect health status i.e. poverty limits access to healthy foods and safe neighborhoods. Modifiable risk behaviors include tobacco use, poor eating habits, and lack of physical activity, which contribute to the development of chronic disease
The effect of exercises on physical health can be explained by the adaptation processes of metabolic and cardiovascular systems
Disease prevention by regular physical activity in particular aerobic training exercises helps in preventing cardiovascular diseases. Physical activity promotes psychological benefits by decreasing negative emotional states e.g. anxiety and increasing positive emotional state e.g. vigor.
In most cases physical exercises is an appropriate means for health promotion.
Wellness is related to health promotion and disease prevention. Wellness is described as the attitudes and active decisions made by an individual that contribute to positive health behaviors and outcomes, this is paramount as it champions to the adherence to health promotion and disease prevention strategies
Activities for health promotion, disease prevention, and wellness programs include:
- COMMUNICATION; this is essential and key factor in health promotion and disease prevention. Helps to raise awareness about certain healthy behaviors for the general public, and this can be done through communication strategies such as public service announcements, health fairs, mass media campaigns, and newsletters.
- EDUCATION; is a channel of empowering behavioral change and actions through disseminating and increasing knowledge. Examples of health education strategies include courses, trainings, and support groups.
- POLICY, SYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENT: health promotion, disease prevention and wellness programs gains the hearing and actualization by the general public by Making systematic changes – through improved laws, rules, and regulations (policy), functional organizational systems, and economic, social, or physical environment – to encourage, make available, and enable healthy choices.